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Ocular accommodation (ability to swiftly change viewing distance) and vergence (movements towards the nose and outwards) are the basis for good eye-teaming abilities. The eyes should be sending very similar images to certain brain centers in order for the image to be perceived as clear and single.


The ocular accommodation and vergence systems are closely connected and they have to be in sync in order to have good eye-teaming abilities. The vergence system helps us to move the eyes towards the nose equally when engaged in near work and sustain it in that position for a while; and when we look at a distance the eyes should be pointing out a bit, again equally. Only when the eyes perform this acuity equally would the person see a single and clear image.


The eye-teaming issues arise from a miscommunication between the eyes and certain brain centers on where each eye should be pointing.


Dysfunction occurs when the eyes are not able to move accurately, smoothly and fast enough in order for the visual information to be processed accurately. If the eyes do not work well as a team the objects will not be tracked properly and the ability to jump from one point to the other would not be accurate as well.


Good eye teaming skills are of enormous importance in activities such as reading, writing, math, copying information, finding something or someone in front of a crowded background, sports and many other activities in the visual world.


If we look how wide the range of symptoms created by the inadequate eye-teaming abilities is, it becomes very clear why a child’s self-esteem and confidence get so greatly affected by it.

Symptoms of
Dysfunctional Eye-Teaming
  • Blurred vision

  • Difficulty reading

  • Blurry vision after sustained reading

  • Blurry vision at the end of the day

  • Headache

  • Ocular discomfort

  • ‘Pulling’ sensation around the eyes

  • Eye tiredness or fatigue

  • Double vision

  • Rubbing eyes when reading

  • Avoidance of reading

  • Sleepiness when reading

  • Squinting, rubbing, or closing an eye

  • Motion sickness

  • Loss of concentration

  • Skipping words / lines

  • Problems understanding & remembering what you read

  • Problems copying from the board

  • Difficulty with math

  • Difficulty with sports

  • Seeing words move on a page

  • Burning or tearing of the eyes

  • Poor eye-hand coordination

  • Difficulty following a moving target

  • Poor judgement in depth

  • Decreased efficiency or productivity

  • Need to use finger to keep place

Treatments of eye-teaming difficulties include strategies to realign the eyes and strengthen weak muscles. Vision therapy is used as a form of non-surgical treatment based on individually created programs in order to stimulate the visual system to function efficiently. The vision therapy sessions are designed to enhance the brain’s ability to control the eye movements and to stabilize them.


The emphasis of vision therapy is on eye focusing abilities, ocular alignment (position of the eyes), eye-teaming and visual processing. During the therapy sessions, optical and computer devices are employed and patients' newly acquired visual skills are made automatic through repetition and by integration with motor and cognitive skills.

Dysfunctional eye-teaming


Overall, vision therapy is based on Orthoptics and rehabilitation of the eye–brain connections involved in vision. Clinical research in vision therapy is closely linked with developments in neuroscience throughout the 20th century and that trend continues today. Vision therapy sessions might be conducted initially by the Vision Therapist and followed by prescribed home therapy. The frequency depends on the nature of the eye-teaming difficulties and overall visual status.


Please visit the following link to find more about vision therapy and its applications:

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